Tuesday, August 16, 2011

7th Grade Unit#3 - Human Body Systems

7th Grade Unit#3 - Human Body Systems




VSC    3.7.B. Cells
2. Recognize and provide examples that human beings, like other organisms have complex body systems of cells, tissues and organs that interact to support an organism's growth and survival.
a. Describe and explain that the complex set of systems found in multicellular organisms are made up of different kinds of tissues and organs which are themselves composed of differentiated cells.
b. Select several body systems and explain the role of cells, tissues and organs that effectively carry out a vital function for the organism, such as
§    Obtaining food and providing energy (digestive, circulatory, respiratory)
§    Defense (nervous, endocrine, circulatory, muscular, skeletal, immune)
§    Reproduction (reproductive, endocrine, circulatory)
§    Waste removal (excretory, respiratory, circulatory)
§    Breathing (respiratory, circulatory)
c. Develop a response that explains the meaning of the statement, "The specialization of cells serves the operation of the organs, and the organs serve the needs of the cells."
d. Investigate ways in which the various organs and tissues function to serve the needs of cells for food, air, and waste removal.
v    Recognize body systems and the interaction of cells, tissues, and organs to support growth and survival.
a.    Systems consist of tissues and organs which are made of cells.
b.    Discuss Tissue types Muscular, Smooth, Cardiac
c.     Human body systems and functions: 
·  muscular, skeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory,
         excretory, nervous, endocrine, and reproduction Ropes


PRETEST- Copy and explain in your journal

·    What is homeostasis? 
·    What is the skeletal system?
·    What are the jobs of the skeleton?
·    What are the three types of muscle tissue?
·    What is the muscular system?
·    How do muscle contract? Why do they need to work in pairs?
·    How do the skeletal system and muscular system work together to allow for movement?
·    What is the circulatory system and what are its structures?
·    How is the human circulatory system like the streets and highways of a large city?
·    What is the function of the respiratory system?
·    How are breathing and cellular respiration different?
·    What functions are carried out in the digestive system?
·    What are the organs of the digestive system? What is the function of each digestive organ?
·    How is surface area related to absorption?
·    What is the excretory system?  What is its function?
·    What are the functions of the kidneys? How is blood filtered?
·    What is the function of the endocrine system?
·    How does the endocrine system maintain homeostasis?
·    What are the main functions of the male and female reproductive systems?
·    What is the immune system?
·    What causes disease?
·    How does the body fight disease?
·    How are infectious diseases transmitted?
·    Why is skin important?
·    What is the nervous system?
·    How is nerve impulse transmitted?
·    How do body systems, organs, tissues, and cells work together to keep an organism healthy?






1st BIG Assignment= Please look up these vocabulary words and put the words and their definitions into your journal 



Enzymes
Absorption
Villi
Excretory System
Excretion
Filtration
Nephron
Urine
Nervous System
Neuron
Brain
Spinal Cord
Stimulus
Response
Endocrine System
Hormones
Immune System
Immunity
Reproductive System
Ovary
Testes
Uterus
Gonad



Please read this article and complete the following activities in your journal.
Body Systems Work Together 
By Cindy Grigg
  


1     You know that your body is made of cells. When groups of cells do the same kind of work, they are called tissues. The word tissue comes from a Latin word meaning to "weave." Cells that make up tissues are sometimes "woven" together.
 2     You have four main types of tissues: epithelial, nervous, muscle, and connective tissue. Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body. It also lines organs and cavities. Nervous tissue sends electrical signals. Muscle tissue helps you move. Connective tissue joins bones and cushions organs.
 3     When groups of tissues work together, they are called organs. Some examples of organs are the heart, lungs, skin, and stomach. When organs work together, they are called systems. For example, your heart, lungs, blood, and blood vessels work together. They make up the circulatory system.
 













 There are eleven systems in the human body: muscular system, respiratory system, digestive system, integumentary system (skin), skeletal system, circulatory (or cardiovascular) system, excretory (or urinary) system, reproductive system, nervous system, lymphatic system, and endocrine system. Each system has a special job.
 

Assignment=Please copy this main idea and details graphic organizer in your journal and complete it from the reading above.

5     All of your body systems have to work together to keep you healthy. Your bones and muscles work together to support and move your body. Your respiratory system takes in oxygen from the air. It also gets rid of carbon dioxide.
 6     Your digestive system absorbs water and nutrients from the food you eat.
 7     Your circulatory system carries oxygen, water, and nutrients to cells throughout your body. Wastes from the cells are eliminated by your respiratory system, your excretory system, and your skin. Your nervous system controls all these activities with electrical impulses. If any system in your body isn't working properly, other systems are affected.



Assignment=Please copy this main idea and details graphic organizer in your journal and complete it from the reading above.

 8     Think of your body as a building. A building has a plumbing system, a heating system, a cooling system, an electrical system, and a support system. If any system in a building breaks down, other systems can be affected.
 9     As one example, think about a building's electrical system. Suppose a mouse chewed through an electrical wire to a furnace. Without electricity, the heating system would not work. If this happened in very cold weather, the plumbing system could be affected. Water pipes might freeze and burst. If a lot of water leaked into the building's walls, its support system would be damaged. Like a building's systems, your body's systems have to work together.

Please summarize the last paragraph in 2-4 sentences
Copyright © 2011 edHelper




Please click the site below and watch the movie.  Take 10+ notes about what you learned from it.
http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/_bfs_CSmoviesource.html





Assignment=Please create your own test from the video above, copy it in your journal and take the test.
1.





2.





3.




  
4.

  False
  True
5.
Complete the sentence:
                                   ______.




6.





7.





8.











Assignment=Please copy this assignment into your journal and complete it there.

_____________________________
Date ___________________
Body Systems Work Together

1.Tissues are:
  Groups of cells doing the same work
  Groups of organs doing the same work
  Groups of systems doing the same work
2.How many types of tissue do you have?
  Three
  Ten
  Four
  Eleven
3.Groups of tissue that work together are called:
  Cells
  Epithelial
  Organs
  Connective
4.What do body systems consist of?
  Cells working together
  Organs working together
  Tissues working together
5.How many systems are there in the human body?
  Ten
  Eleven
  Twelve
  Five
6.Systems in a building are like:
  Members of a family
  Systems in your body
  Your nervous system
  Cells in your body
7.A building's foundation, walls, floors, and roof are most like which body system?
  The respiratory system
  The skeletal system
  The digestive system
  The nervous system
8.Your nervous system is like a building's:
  Support system
  Plumbing system
  Electrical system
  Heating system

 _____________________________
Date ___________________
Body Systems Work Together
Assignment=Explain in your journal in a 2-4 sentence paragraph, How is your body like a building?





 _____________________________
Date ___________________
Body Systems Work Together
Assignment=choose one body system and tell what organs make up the system. Describe the jobs those organs do and how they work together as a system. Explain in your journal in a 2-4 sentence paragraph





Assignment=Please copy this assignment into your journal and complete it there.
Body Systems Work Together 
By Cindy Grigg
  



electrical
reproductive
examples


urinary
weave
carbon


move
lines
lymphatic


excretory
woven
endocrine


throughout
main
digestive


example
cardiovascular


Directions:  Fill in each blank with the word that best completes the reading comprehension.

     You know that your body is made of cells. When groups of cells do the same kind of work, they are called tissues. The word tissue comes from a Latin word meaning to "(1)  _______________________  ." Cells that make up tissues are sometimes "(2)  _______________________  " together.
     You have four (3)  _______________________   types of tissues: epithelial, nervous, muscle, and connective tissue. Epithelial tissue covers the outside of the body. It also (4)  _______________________   organs and cavities. Nervous tissue sends electrical signals. Muscle tissue helps you (5)  _______________________  . Connective tissue joins bones and cushions organs.
     When groups of tissues work together, they are called organs. Some (6)  _______________________   of organs are the heart, lungs, skin, and stomach. When organs work together, they are called systems. For example, your heart, lungs, blood, and blood vessels work together. They make up the circulatory system.
     There are eleven systems in the human body: muscular system, respiratory system, digestive system, integumentary system (skin), skeletal system, circulatory (or (7)  _______________________  ) system, excretory (or (8)  _______________________  ) system,(9)  _______________________   system, nervous system, (10)  _______________________   system, and(11)  _______________________   system. Each system has a special job.
     All of your body systems have to work together to keep you healthy. Your bones and muscles work together to support and move your body. Your respiratory system takes in oxygen from the air. It also gets rid of (12)  _______________________   dioxide.
     Your (13)  _______________________   system absorbs water and nutrients from the food you eat.
     Your circulatory system carries oxygen, water, and nutrients to cells (14)  _______________________   your body. Wastes from the cells are eliminated by your respiratory system, your (15)  _______________________   system, and your skin. Your nervous system controls all these activities with electrical impulses. If any system in your body isn't working properly, other systems are affected.
     Think of your body as a building. A building has a plumbing system, a heating system, a cooling system, an electrical system, and a support system. If any system in a building breaks down, other systems can be affected.
     As one (16)  _______________________  , think about a building's electrical system. Suppose a mouse chewed through an(17)  _______________________   wire to a furnace. Without electricity, the heating system would not work. If this happened in very cold weather, the plumbing system could be affected. Water pipes might freeze and burst. If a lot of water leaked into the building's walls, its support system would be damaged. Like a building's systems, your body's systems have to work together.
 

Copyright © 2011 edHelper


Assignment=Please copy this assignment into your journal and complete it there.
_____________________________
Date ___________________
Body Systems Work Together

1.Tissues are:
  Groups of cells doing the same work
  Groups of organs doing the same work
  Groups of systems doing the same work
2.How many types of tissue do you have?
  Three
  Four
  Eleven
  Ten
3.Groups of tissue that work together are called:
  Epithelial
  Cells
  Connective
  Organs
4.What do body systems consist of?
  Tissues working together
  Cells working together
  Organs working together
5.How many systems are there in the human body?
  Twelve
  Five
  Ten
  Eleven
6.Systems in a building are like:
  Your nervous system
  Cells in your body
  Members of a family
  Systems in your body
7.A building's foundation, walls, floors, and roof are most like which body system?
  The skeletal system
  The digestive system
  The respiratory system
  The nervous system
8.Your nervous system is like a building's:
  Plumbing system
  Electrical system
  Support system
  Heating system






Please read this article and complete the following activities in your journal.






The Digestive System 
By Sharon Fabian
  







1     The digestive system is the group of organs that breaks down food so that the body can use it. Food must be broken down all the way to its individual molecules to be useable. This involves a number of steps, and different organs to do different parts of the job.
 2     Once food is broken down it provides energy for many essential body functions. It provides the energy for all of our physical activity such as walking, playing sports, working, and talking. It also provides the energy for other, more automatic, activities including breathing and thinking. Food provides the energy for the nerves, muscles, and organs, including the heart, to continue working. It provides the fuel to build and repair body tissues. Food energy is needed to regulate body organs and systems. It is the fuel that provides heat to keep our body temperature at a steady 98.6 degrees.






Assignment=Please explain in 2-3 sentences in your journal  what a good title for the paragraph above would be.
 3     The digestive process begins in the mouth. There, the teeth and the muscles of the mouth begin the digestive process by breaking down the food into smaller bits. Saliva, produced by the salivary glands, begins to digest the food before it is even swallowed. Saliva and the other chemicals produced along the way to speed the digestive process are called digestive enzymes.





Assignment=Please explain in 2-3 sentences in your journal  what a good title for the paragraph above would be.
 4     Next, muscles in the throat help swallow the food, and it passes through a long tube called the esophagus. The esophagus goes from the throat to the stomach. In the stomach, a digestive fluid called gastric juice mixes with the food. The stomach muscles toss the food and the gastric juices, and break down the protein parts of the food. Other parts of the food will not be broken down for several more hours.





Assignment=Please explain in 2-3 sentences in your journal  what a good title for the paragraph above would be.
 5     The food is now a thick liquid, and it leaves the stomach to pass into the small intestine. In the small intestine more digestive enzymes act on the food. Pancreatic juice, from the pancreas, and bile, produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder, continue to break down various parts of the food. They complete the digestion of starches, sugars, and fats.




Assignment=Please explain in 2-3 sentences in your journal  what a good title for the paragraph above would be.
 6     As the food becomes completely digested it gets absorbed into the bloodstream by tiny blood vessels in the wall of the small intestine. At this point the food has been broken down to its molecules, and the energy from the food travels to wherever it is needed in the body, by way of the bloodstream.





Assignment=Please explain in 2-3 sentences in your journal  what a good title for the paragraph above would be.
 7     The parts of the food that cannot be digested then pass into the large intestine. These parts include fibers, or roughage. There they are stored and broken down further by the action of bacteria, until they are expelled from the body through the rectum.
 8     The whole system that the food passes through is called the alimentary canal. Its main parts are the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the liver, the gall bladder, the pancreas, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum. Some of its main chemicals are saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, and bile. It's the system that provides the energy that keeps us alive and active -- the digestive system.







Assignment=Please explain in 2-3 sentences in your journal  what a good title for the 2 paragraphs above would be.


Sequencing Graphic Organizer @ the Digestive Process






Assignment=Please copy this sequence graphic organizer in your journal and complete it from the parts of the digestive system in the reading above.















Copyright © 2011 edHelper



Assignment=Please copy this assignment into your journal and complete it there.




____________________________
Date ___________________
The Digestive System

1.  Which is part of the digestive system?
  Brain
  Liver
  Lungs
  Aorta
2.  The digestive system is _____.
  An organ
  The same thing as the stomach
  A group of organs
  The system that we use to breathe
3.  The digestive system produces which of these chemicals?
  Gastric juice
  Saliva
  Pancreatic juice
  All of the above
4.  This article is mainly about _____.
  The system that circulates our blood
  The system that breaks down food
  The small intestine
  The mouth
5.  Food provides _____.
  Energy
  Blood
  Oxygen
  None of the above
6.  Food must be broken down into _____ before it can pass into the bloodstream.
  Proteins
  Liquid
  Atoms
  Molecules 
7.  The esophagus is _____.
  The organ that digests protein
  The organ that produces bile
  Another name for the stomach
  The tube from the mouth to the stomach
8.  Digestive enzymes are _____.
  Organs
  Chemicals
  Foods
  Muscles

__________________________
Date ___________________
The Digestive System
Assignment=Please describe the job of the digestive system in your journal in 2-3 sentences.







___________________________
Date ___________________
The Digestive System
Assignment=Please pick a part of the digestive system and describe its function / job in your journal in 2-3 sentences.







__________________________
Date ___________________
The Digestive System
Assignment=Please which part of the digestive system do you find the most fascinating? Why? Explain in your journal in 2-3 sentences.




Please click the site below and watch the movie.  Take 10+ notes about what you learned from it.

Assignment=Please create your own test from the video above, copy it in your journal and take the test.
1.



2.



3.




  
4.

  False
  True
5.
Complete the sentence:
                                   ______.


6.



7.



8.




http://kidshealth.org/kid/htbw/DSmovie.html

Assignment=Please copy this assignment into your journal and complete it there.
The Digestive System 
By Sharon Fabian
  



activities
process
essential
main


such
automatic
gall
along


begins
action
alive
continue


provides
individual
activity
begin


wherever


Directions:  Fill in each blank with the word that best completes the reading comprehension.

     The digestive system is the group of organs that breaks down food so that the body can use it. Food must be broken down all the way to its (1)  _______________________   molecules to be useable. This involves a number of steps, and different organs to do different parts of the job.
     Once food is broken down it (2)  _______________________   energy for many (3)  _______________________   body functions. It provides the energy for all of our physical (4)  _______________________   (5)  _______________________   as walking, playing sports, working, and talking. It also provides the energy for other, more (6)  _______________________  ,(7)  _______________________   including breathing and thinking. Food provides the energy for the nerves, muscles, and organs, including the heart, to continue working. It provides the fuel to build and repair body tissues. Food energy is needed to regulate body organs and systems. It is the fuel that provides heat to keep our body temperature at a steady 98.6 degrees.
     The digestive process (8)  _______________________   in the mouth. There, the teeth and the muscles of the mouth(9)  _______________________   the digestive process by breaking down the food into smaller bits. Saliva, produced by the salivary glands, begins to digest the food before it is even swallowed. Saliva and the other chemicals produced(10)  _______________________   the way to speed the digestive (11)  _______________________   are called digestive enzymes.
     Next, muscles in the throat help swallow the food, and it passes through a long tube called the esophagus. The esophagus goes from the throat to the stomach. In the stomach, a digestive fluid called gastric juice mixes with the food. The stomach muscles toss the food and the gastric juices, and break down the protein parts of the food. Other parts of the food will not be broken down for several more hours.
     The food is now a thick liquid, and it leaves the stomach to pass into the small intestine. In the small intestine more digestive enzymes act on the food. Pancreatic juice, from the pancreas, and bile, produced in the liver and stored in the gall bladder,(12)  _______________________   to break down various parts of the food. They complete the digestion of starches, sugars, and fats.
     As the food becomes completely digested it gets absorbed into the bloodstream by tiny blood vessels in the wall of the small intestine. At this point the food has been broken down to its molecules, and the energy from the food travels to(13)  _______________________   it is needed in the body, by way of the bloodstream.
     The parts of the food that cannot be digested then pass into the large intestine. These parts include fibers, or roughage. There they are stored and broken down further by the (14)  _______________________   of bacteria, until they are expelled from the body through the rectum.
     The whole system that the food passes through is called the alimentary canal. Its main parts are the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the liver, the (15)  _______________________   bladder, the pancreas, the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum. Some of its (16)  _______________________   chemicals are saliva, gastric juice, pancreatic juice, and bile. It's the system that provides the energy that keeps us (17)  _______________________   and active -- the digestive system.
 

Copyright © 2011 edHelper









4    






Please read this article and complete the following activities in your journal.



Your Bones 
By Cindy Grigg
  


1     Have you ever wondered what your bones are good for? Why do we have bones, anyway? Your body needs help to stand nice and tall and to move. You can stand and move because you have bones and muscles. The bones of your body make up your skeleton. Your skeleton holds you up. Your bones also work with your muscles to help you move.



Main Idea and Details Graphic Organizer




Assignment=Please copy this main idea and details graphic organizer in your journal and complete it from the reading above.

 2     Have you ever used a hand puppet? It just lies there on the table until you put your hand inside it. Your hand makes the puppet move. Your hand inside the puppet gives the puppet support. That means your hand holds up the puppet. Your skeleton does the same things for your body. Your bones make up the skeletal system. Your body has several different systems. The muscular system is the system of muscles that make up your body.






Main Idea and Details Graphic Organizer




Assignment=Please copy this main idea and details graphic organizer in your journal and complete it from the reading above.

 3     Your bones help protect the organs inside your body. Look at a picture of a skeleton. Do you see the ribs? The rib bones protect the heart and lungs. Look at the head of the skeleton. Those hard bones that are tightly joined together all around the head protect the brain.











Main Idea and Details Graphic Organizer








Assignment=Please copy this main idea and details graphic organizer in your journal and complete it from the reading above.
 4     Look at the different shapes of the bones of a skeleton. Do you see that the long and thin parts of your body have long thin bones? The bones in the arms and legs are long and thin. Notice how the ribs curve around to give the upper body a round shape. The bones of the pelvis give the lower body a round shape.











 5     The place where two different bones come together is called a joint. Your arm bones join at the shoulder. You can swing your arms in a circle if you want to. That‘s because of the type of joint you have in the shoulder. It is called a "ball and socket" joint.






Main Idea and Details Graphic Organizer



Assignment=Please copy this main idea and details graphic organizer in your journal and complete it from the reading above.
 6     This type of joint lets you move your arm around and around in almost any way. The end of one bone is rounded, like a ball. It fits into a cupped bone that looks a little like a light socket. The "ball" bone fits into the "socket" bone like a light bulb fits into a light socket. This lets you move your arms in many ways. You have a ball and socket joint in your hips, too. You can also move your legs in many ways.
 7     You have a different type of joint in your elbow. You can not move your lower arm around in a circle, can you? It will only bend in one way. This kind of joint is called a "hinge" joint. That's because it is like the hinge on a door. It only moves in one way. Different kinds of joints allow bones to move in different ways.


Main Idea and Details Graphic Organizer



Assignment=Please copy this main idea and details graphic organizer in your journal and complete it from the reading above.

 8     You need your bones! Bones give your body support. Bones help your body move. Your bones are called the skeletal system. Bones have one more important job. They store minerals like calcium for your body. Some bones protect organs inside your body. You have different kinds of bones. The place where two bones join together is called a joint. Different kinds of joints allow your body to move in different ways.

Copyright © 2011 edHelper











Assignment=Please copy this assignment into your journal and complete it there.



_____________________________
Date ___________________
Your Bones

1.  Your bones help _________ up your body.







2.  Your bones work with your muscles to help you _________.
  See
  Breathe
  Move
3.  Your bones are also called your _________________.
  Muscles
  Skeleton
4.  Your bones make up the ____________ system in your body.
  Muscular
  Skeletal
5.  The place where two different bones come together is called a _________.
  Joint
  Muscle
  Tendon
6.  Which kind of joint do you have in your shoulder?
  A hinge joint
  A ball and socket joint






____________________________
Date ___________________
Your Bones
Assignment=Please explain in your journal in 2-3 sentences what is the job of your skeletal system?










 _____________________________
Date ___________________
Your Bones
Assignment=Please explain in your journal in 2-3 sentences how many different kinds of joints do you think you have in your body? Where are they?







Please click the site below and watch the movie.  Take 10+ notes about what you learned from it.

Assignment=Please create your own test from the video above, copy it in your journal and take the test.
1.



2.



3.




  
4.

  False
  True
5.
Complete the sentence:
                                   ______.


6.



7.



8.





Assignment=Please copy this assignment into your journal and complete it there.
Your Bones 
By Cindy Grigg
  



fits
important
join
moves


circle
calcium
elbow
protect


bulb
upper
support
joined


holds
heart
move
also


lower


Directions:  Fill in each blank with the word that best completes the reading comprehension.

     Have you ever wondered what your bones are good for? Why do we have bones, anyway? Your body needs help to stand nice and tall and to move. You can stand and move because you have bones and muscles. The bones of your body make up your skeleton. Your skeleton holds you up. Your bones (1)  _______________________   work with your muscles to help you (2)  _______________________  .
     Have you ever used a hand puppet? It just lies there on the table until you put your hand inside it. Your hand makes the puppet move. Your hand inside the puppet gives the puppet(3)  _______________________  . That means your hand(4)  _______________________   up the puppet. Your skeleton does the same things for your body. Your bones make up the skeletal system. Your body has several different systems. The muscular system is the system of muscles that make up your body.
     Your bones help protect the organs inside your body. Look at a picture of a skeleton. Do you see the ribs? The rib bones protect the (5)  _______________________   and lungs. Look at the head of the skeleton. Those hard bones that are tightly (6)  _______________________   together all around the head(7)  _______________________   the brain.
     Look at the different shapes of the bones of a skeleton. Do you see that the long and thin parts of your body have long thin bones? The bones in the arms and legs are long and thin. Notice how the ribs curve around to give the (8)  _______________________   body a round shape. The bones of the pelvis give the lower body a round shape.
     The place where two different bones come together is called a joint. Your arm bones(9)  _______________________   at the shoulder. You can swing your arms in a(10)  _______________________   if you want to. That‘s because of the type of joint you have in the shoulder. It is called a "ball and socket" joint.
     This type of joint lets you move your arm around and around in almost any way. The end of one bone is rounded, like a ball. It fits into a cupped bone that looks a little like a light socket. The "ball" bone fits into the "socket" bone like a light (11)  _______________________   (12)  _______________________   into a light socket. This lets you move your arms in many ways. You have a ball and socket joint in your hips, too. You can also move your legs in many ways.
     You have a different type of joint in your (13)  _______________________  . You can not move your(14)  _______________________   arm around in a circle, can you? It will only bend in one way. This kind of joint is called a "hinge" joint. That's because it is like the hinge on a door. It only(15)  _______________________   in one way. Different kinds of joints allow bones to move in different ways.
     You need your bones! Bones give your body support. Bones help your body move. Your bones are called the skeletal system. Bones have one more (16)  _______________________   job. They store minerals like(17)  _______________________   for your body. Some bones protect organs inside your body. You have different kinds of bones. The place where two bones join together is called a joint. Different kinds of joints allow your body to move in different ways.


Copyright © 2011 edHelper




·    Homeostasis is the process by which an organism’s internal environment is kept stable in spite of changes in the external environment.  
·    The skeleton provides shape and supports the body, protects internal organs, provides for movement, stores mineral reserves, and provides a site for blood cell formation.
·    The muscular system consists of a series of muscles that allow for both conscious and unconscious movements throughout the body.
·    There are three different types of muscle tissue: skeletal, smooth, and cardiac.
·    A muscle contracts when the thin filaments in the muscle fiber slide over the thick filaments.
·    Muscles must work in pairs because muscles can only contract, they cannot elongate.
·    The skeletal system is covered with muscles that enable us to move. These muscles are attached to the bones through tendons.  In order to move, the nervous system signals a skeletal muscle to contract. When the muscle contracts, this movement causes the attached bone to follow, joints that connect bones allow for twists, turns, and bends.
·    The circulatory system carries needed substances to cells and carries waste products away from cells. In addition, blood contains cells that fight disease.
·    The major structures of the circulatory system include the heart, blood vessels (veins, arteries, and capillaries), and the blood.
·    The basic function performed by the human respiratory system is remarkably simple- to bring about the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the blood, the air, and tissues.
·    Breathing involves the inhalation of air from the nose/mouth through the pharynx to the trachea into to the bronchi of the lungs.  Oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged across the thin membrane of the alveoli at the end of bronchioles.
·    Cellular respiration is the use of oxygen to released energy in food.  This process occurs in the mitochondria of cells.
·    The function of the digestive system is to help convert food into simpler molecules that can be absorbed and used by the cells of the body. The digestive system includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine, and other organs.
·    Villi in the small intestines greatly increase the surface area available for absorption of nutrients.
·    The function of the excretory system is to remove waste from the body.
·    The kidneys play an important role in maintaining homeostasis. They remove waste products from the blood; maintain blood ph, regulate the water content of the blood and, therefore, blood volume.
·    As blood enters a nephron from an artery, impurities are filtered out and emptied into a collecting duct. The purified blood exits the nephron into a vein.
·    The nervous system includes the brain, spinal cord, and nerves; it controls and coordinates functions throughout the body and responds to internal and external stimuli.
·    An impulse begins when a neuron is stimulated by another neuron or by the environment.
The endocrine system is made up of glands that release their products into the bloodstream. 




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